sexta-feira, 29 de julho de 2011

Bazerman, a ética, a moral e a corrupção

«Blind Spots - Why We Fail to Do What's Right and What to Do About It», of Max H. Bazerman and Ann E. Tenbrunsel.

An amazing book of Max Bazerman, Harvard Business School professor. The issue is current. Ethical and moral behavior. Here are some ideas taken from Blind Spots (check this link):

«How we think we should behave is very different from how we want to behave. We may predict we will behave in a manner consistent with our expectations for ourselves. But when the time comes to make a decision, we often behave the way we want to behave.»

«The should self dominates before and after we make a decision, but the want self often wins at the moment of decision. Thus, when approaching a decision, we predict that we will make the decision we think we should make.»

«When it comes time to make a decision, our thoughts are dominated by thoughts of how we want to behave; thoughts of how we should behave disappear.»

«In Max's work with Lisa Shu and Francesca Gino shows that when people are in environments that allow them to cheat, they reduce the degree to which they view cheating as morally problematic.» Here is the power of influence.

«Because we are motivated by a desire to see ourselves as ethical people, we remember the actions and decisions that were ethical and forget, or never even process, those that were not, thereby leaving intact our image of ourselves as ethical»

«Typically, however, we find ways to internally "spin" this behavior, whether by rationalizing our role, changing our definition of what's ethical, or casting unethical actions in a more positive light. Bill Clinton argued that he didn't have "sexual relations" with Monica Lewinsky, a lie that he might have justified by changing the standard definition of "sexual relations" in his mind. Similarly, accountants might decide that they engaged in "creative accounting" rather than broke the law».

«We are able to maintain a positive self-image when we blame problems on influences outside of our control - whether the economy, a boss, or a family member - and take personal credit for all that has gone well thanks to our intelligence, intuition, or personality.»

«A used-car salesman can view himself as ethical, despite selling someone a car that leaks oil, by nothing that the potential buyer didn't ask the right questions (...)»

«(...) when caught engaging in unethical but legal acts, many people working in business environments are quick to note that the law permits their behavior and that they are maximizing shareholder value.»

And finally, some excuses we may often notice: «Everybody's doing it»; «I'm just doing my job»; «Ask the boss, not me»; «I just follow orders»